Pearl Farming Business – Plan, License In India

Profit in Starting Pearl Farming Business


Commercial pearl farming is an attractive business. However, you should acquire sound technical knowledge. Furthermore, the business needs comparatively higher initial capital. Here in this post, we plan to explore how to begin a profitable pearl farming business for your awareness.

The cultured pearl industry is altering rapidly. The demand for cultured pearl is rising. However, major driving aspects are new technologies and more widespread use of technology for cultivating pearls. These “cultured pearls” are usually larger and of a more constant size and color than the natural pearls.

Producing cultured pearls is dependent on a surgical procedure popular as grafting. It includes surgical implantation of one artificial nucleus (shell bead) into the tissue of a pearl oyster.

A step by step guide to Pearl Farming Business Investment, Profit in India

The market potential for the Pearl Farming Business

The potential for a pearl farming business has contributed to several of its determinants and has provided a great market for itself. Pearl farming stands as one of the perfect aquaculture businesses.

The increased disposable money enhanced living standards, the importance of social status in the culture has contributed to the growing need for pearls today with the cultured pearls making it available.

Things to be consider while starting Pearl Farming Business

Successful pearl farming needs a long-term investment of cash, time, and hard work. It needs at least 2 to 3 years to harvest the first time. Furthermore, you will usually gain profit from the second or third harvest. So you must keep sufficient money, time, and patience to care for the farm during starting harvests.

Secondly, having high-quality pearls is the key to maintaining a profitable farm. And you will only gain 5-10% of pearls of high quality from each crop. Therefore, these top quality pearls gain 90% of the profit of the farm. And you should produce high-quality pearls with utmost care and maintenance.

Finally, it is essential to have a reliable source of pearl oysters. You should select a suitable location. Also, you should acquire funds to initiate and run the farm. You must get technical assistance from the grafting experts. 

Finally, check whether you can market the pearls before starting a farm, project whether you have followed the above aspects properly.

License, permission, and registration required to start Pearl Farming Business in India

The licenses needed to set up a pearl farming business are listed below:

  • Certificate from the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA)
  • Permissions from the Fishermen’s Cooperative society
  • PAN and Aadhar card details
  • GST registration
  • Land and lease agreements

Business plan for Pearl Farming Business

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Business plan for Pearl Farming Business (Image credit: Pixabay)

Site Selection 

Choosing a good farm site is an essential and primary step towards producing good pearls. The site impacts how well pearl oysters raise, the quality of the pearls, how harmless the farm is from theft or damage, and how much it will be expensive to run the farm. Furthermore, it is tedious to move the farm after establishment.

Setup the Farm 

Pearl farms need only very simple materials. However, you should provide some ways to hold pearl oysters off the bottom. There are about three basic types of farm structures: Tahitian longlines (so-called because they are the most usual method used in Tahiti), rafts, and underwater trestles. You can also utilize some combination of these, dependent on your requirement and location.

Preparing the Pearl Oysters 

There are many methods to catch the adult pearl oysters including lantern baskets, chaplets, pocket nets, and floating or even the submerged trays. However, you should decide which method is perfect for your location and expenses. Whichever method you pick to use, ensure that you carefully wash the pearl oysters every time you move them or transfer them into a new vessel.

Managing the Farm 

Growing pearl oysters is similar to growing any crop. So you must be taking care of the farm frequently for the pearl oysters to grow well and give high-quality pearls. Regularly monitor for any missing lines, damage, and floats. Furthermore, you must wash the pearl oysters from the fouling creatures that grow on their shells. Always hold the pearl oysters carefully and gently during washing.

Grafting the Pearl Oysters

The ideal pearl oyster size used for grafting is up to 4.5-6 in (12-15 cm) in length, or about the size of a woman’s hand. Also, you can graft older and larger pearls but are less likely to produce high-quality pearls. Also, you must clean the pearl oysters every month before grafting. Cleaning will maintain the pearl oysters healthy and in proper condition.

Harvesting the Pearls

It is recommended to go for harvesting pearls when the nacre layer is about 0.08-0.12 in (2-3 mm) thick. Do not take the chance of producing pearls with thin nacre when you go for an early harvest which is indeed a risky attempt. After harvesting, you should keep the pearls in a safe place. It is important to wash pearls immediately after harvesting. Finally, it is recommended to maintain the records of each grafting and harvesting state of your pearl farming business.

Cost and investment for Starting Pearl Farming Business in India

Generally, you will get a considerable return after 4 -5 years. So you should keep track of investment to run the farm. Even after the starting harvest, you may not gain a return on your starting investment. However, these are the major expenses you must take care of.

Cost of obtaining pearl oysters

  • Equipment and supplies
  • Shipping expenses for equipment and supplies and import taxes
  • Farm structure and platform
  • SCUBA gear
  • Utilities and labor expenses

The investment needed in pearl farming is about ₹ 3-₹10 lakhs and it mainly depends on these three processes:

  • Cultured area of pearl farming project
  • The cultured procedure of pearl farming project: pearls through double implementation
  • Stocking Density in pearl farming business: 9000-10000 mussels
  • The time duration of culture: 6-18 months

Profit margin or Income from Pearl Farming Business in India

A single oyster costs about 20 to 30 rupees at a lower cost. The price of one mm to 20 mm oyster pearl in the market is about Rs. 300 to Rs. 1500. Nowadays designer beads are gradually liked very much, which gain good cost in the market. Much better income can be gained by exporting pearls in a foreign market than Indian market. After removing the pearl from the oyster, the oyster is even sold in the market. Many decorative items are made from the oyster. The work of extracting perfume oil through the oysters in Kannauj is also performed on a large scale. Due to which oyster is being sold in the local market nearby. Apart from that, it is known that oysters do purify the water of rivers and ponds so that the issue of water pollution is dealt with to some extent.

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Why is Commercial Pearl Farming Profitable?

Due to the high value of the final product, pearl farming is an attractive business. Although the price of the pearl is majorly determined by the size and quality. Furthermore, this is a specific farming business where the end product is lightweight and non-perishable. Moreover, this business is also a compatible occupation for people who have a love for working on the water. And also the people who are well-versed with boating, diving, and fishing abilities.

Conclusion of Pearl Farming Business in India

Apart from the grafting step, pearl farming is a comparatively easy form of aquaculture. Because this business doesn’t require artificial feeds, complicated farm set up, or constant focus. However, you must carefully manage the farm to attain success in the business.


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